América Latina “tiende a ver mayores beneficios en la integración global que la regional

El Banco Mundial (BM) instó hoy a América Latina a acentuar su integración regional para elevar su competitividad, especialmente a través de la inversión en infraestructura de calidad y mercados de capital, al poner como ejemplo la Alianza del Pacífico.

Iniciativas como la Alianza del Pacífico son pasos en la dirección correcta“, sostuvo Samuel Pienknagura, economista del BM y coautor del informe, en una teleconferencia con periodistas al comentar el mecanismo establecido por Colombia, México, Chile y Perú.

El informe “Mejores vecinos: Hacia una renovación de la integración en América Latina” subraya cómo la exportaciones internas son muy bajas comparadas con otras regiones y respalda una “ambiciosa” agenda de integración.

Las exportaciones intrarregionales en América Latina siguen siendo un 20 % de las exportaciones totales, muy por debajo del 50 % de Asia Oriental, destacó Pienknagura.

En este sentido, apuntó que América Latina “tiende a ver mayores beneficios en la integración global que la regional“, ya que son países que tienen características diferentes y cuentan con ciclos económicos distintos.

Sin embargo, remarcó que si se potencia la integración regional redundará en una mayor competitividad económica en un momento clave, puesto que América Latina viene de registrar dos años consecutivos de crecimiento negativo.

Entre las recomendaciones del BM, figuran una reducción adicional de los aranceles externos, armonizar normas y procedimientos, invertir en infraestructura de calidad para disminuir los altos costos comerciales e integrar también los mercados de trabajo y capital.

Además de la Alianza del Pacífico, Pienknagura citó el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos conocido como CAFTA, y la renovación del MERCOSUR, como “esfuerzos que reconocen que hay que dar prioridad a la integración regional”.

También el Mercado Integrado Latinoamericano (MILA), lanzado en 2011, que buscó unificar los mercados de valores de Colombia, México, Chile y Perú, es un avance en esta dirección.

Por su parte, Jorge Familiar, vicepresidente del BM para América Latina y el Caribe, insistió en que “una integración intrarregional más robusta nos volverá más competitivos en el escenario mundial” y permitirá ofrecer “una vía para reactivar el crecimiento económico necesario para disminuir la pobreza y promover la prosperidad compartida”.

El organismo se desmarca de los recientes llamamientos al proteccionismo, impulsados por la llegada del republicano Donald Trump a la Casa Blanca y la victoria del “brexit” en el Reino Unido, al asegurar que la agenda de integración debe ser a “largo plazo” y agregar que debe estar alejada de cuestiones coyunturales.

“Lo que vemos por ahora es más retórica que acción”, dijo Pienknagura en referencia a la agenda de nacionalismo económico defendida por Trump y que comienza a tener réplicas en otros países.

El presidente estadounidense ha retirado a su país del Tratado Transopacífico, firmado por Washington con once países de la cuenca del Pacífico, y ha prometido renegociar el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN), firmado con Canadá y México.

Para el experto del BM, sería “una gran noticia” que México se pueda “acercar” a Sudamérica y aumente así su integración intrarregional.

Por otro lado, Pienknagura señaló que la relación con China, el principal socio comercial de Latinoamérica, “va a mutar”.

“La economía china se está reorientando hacia la demanda doméstica y menos hacia las exportaciones, y van a cambiar los patrones comerciales ya que además de materias primas va a demandar más manufacturas”, indicó sobre las nuevas oportunidades que pueden surgir con el gigante asiático.

Fuente: Agencia EFE

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